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The use of satelline services continues to grow exponentially,
particularly in communication and GPS satellites. While military
assets in space have remained relatively constant, an explosion
in the commercial space market has taken place. Back in 1996,
the number of commercial launches surpassed military launches
for the first time. Today, satellite services play a vital role in the
distribution of broadband content and access to the internet.
Businesses are expanding their use of satellite services to include
financial transactions, payroll accounting, stock market data
transfer, environmental monitoring, rescue services, and
transportation monitoring to name just a few. Mobile satellite
phone service is also a growing market. Satellite phone service,
like the broadcast television and internet markets, is capable of
filling a niche in remote areas. It has become a tool of choice for
ocean going vessels, emergency teams responding to disasters,
and to military users. The airline and shipping industries rely
heavily upon satellite services for navigation. The avionics on
modern airliners allow them to take-off, fly to their destination
and land in zero visibility with little human intervention.

Shipping traffic is heavily reliant upon satellite navigation
systems to stay within shipping channels and to avoid
underwater hazards. Marine companies use GPS to map the
location of their assets over large expanses of terrain. When a
problem is detected, they are able to respond to the exact
location without wasting time and resources searching in
remote regions. GPS receivers are used to monitor herd
movement, population distributions, and sources of disease.
Boeing Satellite Systems is courting General Motors to use
both satellite and terrestrial systems for its On-Star service. This
would ensure continuous coverage for the services provided by
On-Star such as tele-communication, theft prevention, and
emergency response. The system can be used to detect and
report on airbag deployments, the location of stolen vehicles,
or to unlock the doors when the owner is locked out.

All new General Motors vehicles are equipped with satellite
radio, therefore adapting the system for On-Star is relatively
simple. These industries are dependent upon satellite
communication services to provide an enhanced level of safety
or an enhanced level of service, both of which consumers have
come to expect. Ocean-going vessels use communication
systems to talk with shipping controllers, to schedule port
arrivals, and to report unforeseen maintenance requirements.
Airlines also use telecommunications services to feed video and
high-speed internet to passengers on board intercontinental
flights. This relatively new service will soon become an expected
standard. In addition to navigation, GPS provides extremely
accurate timing data. This highly reliable, very accurate time
source is being incorporated into many commercial applications.

Another example are the power plant generators that provide
electric phase matching and fault detection throughout power
grids in the United States. Timing and synchronization is critical
to control the generation and distribution loop within the power
grid, to share power with adjacent grids, and to identify quickly
the location of short circuits within the system. GPS eliminated
the need to maintain costly microwave towers which proved to
be expensive in remote regions. Global Positioning System
timing also synchronizes the internet and computer networks.
With this increased sharing of information, databases, and
financial transactions comes the need for common timekeeping
and the internet backbone to support data transmissions. GPS
is now the most common source for accurate timing data. In
2000, 40 of the world’s 92 publicly accessible internet timing
sources relied upon GPS timing. Atomic clocks were the second
most used. The remaining timing sources were provided by radio
signal. Of all these sources, GPS is the easiest to use and least
costly to operate.

All of this demand for space services has increased the size of
the space industry. The last few years have shown significant
growth in space-related industries. The commercial space
industry is comprised of the manufacturers, service providers,
space applications, and space support services. The
manufacturing segment is further broken down into the building
of the satellite bus, satellite sensors, launch vehicles, and
equipment for ground stations. The service providers include
broadcast television, telecommunications, internet, and mobile
phone. The space application area includes Global Positioning
System (GPS) users, remote sensing (imagery), and weather
data. Support services are the external business requirements
such as legal service, licensing, and insurance.

Growth in the satellite services space industry is not limited to
United States companies. As technology matures and becomes
more affordable, many other countries will develop commercial
activities in space, not only for their own use, but also for
American businesses. Telesat Canada, Canada's leading
satellite operator, recently launched Anik F1-R, a replacement
satellite to continue its mission of broadcasting television
throughout North America. In addition to television
broadcasting, the satellite will transmit internet and multimedia
products and will also be used by air traffic controllers to help
enhance their current ability to track aircraft in congested skies
across the continent. All commercial satellite communication
companies, no matter where they are located, sell or lease
airtime to customers of all nationalities. It is not uncommon for
dozens of countries to rely upon the same satellite for their
communication needs. Therefore, countries are becoming more
interdependent on each other to ensure satellite usage is not
interrupted either intentionally or by accident. As more and
more business moves through space, the economic impact
associated with potential satellite loss grows. This growing
dependence on satellites, coupled with an inability to protect
them, creates vulnerability and could lead to chaos if those
assets were lost or disabled.

Commercial satellite services have become embedded in our
society. Individuals and businesses depend upon satellites for
financial transactions, entertainment, communication, navigation,
weather forecasting, timing data, and more. To understand the
extend of the satellite services penetration in our lives, let's
imagine for a moment a sudden loss of satellite services, one
that could cause economic chaos. The extent of that chaos is
dependent upon how quickly critical services such as financial
transactions, network timing, and stock market services can be
switched to fiber-optic networks. Industries that use point-to-
he banking industry. The undersea fiber optic network has many
terabits of excess capacity. This terrestrial capacity is capable of
handling the lost bandwidth from critical space assets. The key
factor is getting critical services rerouted from space assets to
terrestrial assets. Many teleport facilities are becoming dual use;
that is, they send data via both satellite and fiber optic. The
media chosen depends upon system availability and efficiency.
Dual use facilities are in a better position to quickly transition to
fiber optic than facilities that transmit via satellite only.

The largest risk to the economy is in overall consumer confidence.
When American consumers cannot receive cable TV, satellite TV,
cash from ATMs, or buy gas via pay-at-the-pump, they may lose
confidence and stop spending money. That could have a greater
impact than the loss of satellite services. The potential for this
scenario is lessened by quick conversion to fiber optic and strong
leadership from government officials, but consumer confidence
is both fragile and fickle. One can rarely predict and influence
consumer confidence levels. The world operated without satellite
services for many years. A complete loss of all satellites will not
cause life to end, the sun to stop shining, or prevent food from
growing. Civilization will not collapse. But it's clear that the
United States must be able to hold and maintain long term
space superiority, including the neede backup for satellite
services failure.

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